By American Academy of Ophthalmology, Ramana S. Moorthy MD
Starts off with an summary of immune-mediated eye illness, summarizing simple immunologic suggestions, ocular immune responses and specific themes in ocular immunology. Discusses the medical method of uveitis and reports noninfectious (autoimmune) and infectious kinds of uveitis, with an extended part on viral uveitis and new fabric on infectious and noninfectious scleritis.
Enhanced detection of infectious brokers through immunologic and genetic equipment and biologic therapeutics are special. additionally covers endophthalmitis, masquerade syndromes, issues of uveitis and ocular features of AIDS.
Upon crowning glory of part nine, readers will be capable to:
Identify common and particular pathophysiologic techniques that have an effect on the constitution and serve as of the uvea, lens, intraocular cavities, retina, and different tissues in acute and persistent intraocular inflammation
Differentiate and determine infectious and noninfectious uveitic entities
Choose applicable exam thoughts and appropriate ancillary reviews in response to even if an infectious or noninfectious reason is suspected
Read or Download 2014-2015 Basic and Clinical Science Course (BCSC): Section 9: Intraocular Inflammation and Uvetis PDF
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Extra info for 2014-2015 Basic and Clinical Science Course (BCSC): Section 9: Intraocular Inflammation and Uvetis
Primed macrophages Resting macrophages become primed by exposure to certain cytokines. Upon priming, these cells become positive for MHC class II antigen and capable of functioning as APCs to T lymphocytes (see Chapter 2). Priming implies activation of specialized lysosomal 22 • lntraocular Inflammation and Uveitis CLINICAL EXAMPLE 1-4 • Phacolytic glaucoma Mild iQfiltration of scavenging macrophages centered around retained lens cortex or nucleus fragments occurs in nearly all eyes with lens injury, including those subjected to routine cataract surgery.
CD4 T lymphocytes become activated into T helper-1 (Th1) or T helper-2 (Th2) subsets. Th1 lymphocytes function to help B lymphocytes secrete immunoglobulin G1 (lgG 1) and lgG3; inhibit Th2; and releas3 cytokines such as interleukin-2 (ll-2), interferon gamma (IFN-y). tumor necrosis factor p (TNF-Pl. and IL-12. Th2 lymphocytes function to help B lymphocytes secrete lgE and lgA; inhibit Th1 lymphocytes; and synthesize cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10. CD8 T lymphocytes become activated into regulatory T lymphocytes that function by inhibiting other CD4 T lymphocytes, often by secreting cytokines such as transforming growth factor p (TGF-P).
Antigen-presenting cells APCs are specialized cells that bind and phagocytize antigen at a site. Following ingestion of antigen, APCs migrate to lymph nodes, where they process the antigen, typically by intracellular proteolysis to short amino acid chains of 7 to 11 amino acids. These peptides are then combined with a groove structure in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules present on the surface of the APC, forming a unique epitope. The combination of peptide and HLA protein is recognized by T-lymphocyte receptors CD4 and CDS, thereby beginning the activation process of adaptive immunity.
2014-2015 Basic and Clinical Science Course (BCSC): Section 9: Intraocular Inflammation and Uvetis by American Academy of Ophthalmology, Ramana S. Moorthy MD