Download PDF by Michael Swan: A Basic English Grammar Exercises

By Michael Swan

ISBN-10: 0194329461

ISBN-13: 9780194329460

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E. standard grammatical rules and variable rules), but also some kind of recognition device to tell the speaker whether to interpret a particular set of data as rule-plus-exceptions or as area-of-variability. When we recall that the data on which non-variable rules are based is often incomplete and heterogeneous, the mode of operation of such a device must seem somewhat mysterious. (p. 460) Bickerton (1971) went on to point out that the learnability problem posed by variable rules is even more serious: In order that the average for [a group of speakers that share a variable rule] should remain constant, the variation of the individual must be confined within a relatively narrow range.

When a vowel is pronounced, the sound energy is supplied by the vocal cords, which set the air in the vocal tract to vibrating. The vocal tract (like the sounding board of a guitar) amplifies some of the frequencies of vibrating air and dampens other frequencies. The amplified frequency with the lowest pitch is called the first formant (abbreviated F1). The amplified frequency with the next lowest pitch is called the second formant (F2), and so on. When the shape of the vocal tract is changed, as when it moves from the articulatory gesture for [a] to the articulatory gesture for [æ], different frequencies are amplified and dampened.

2 and the actual data. The stepwise regression showed that the effects of three of the four factor groups were significant: style, grammatical category, and gender. The effect of following phonological environment was not significant, as was the case in Labov (2001a). 77 (65%). Before looking at the effect of style, it is necessary to ask whether style shifting had the same effect for both genders. It is possible, for example, that in casual speech women lower their frequency of N, whereas men raise their frequency.

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A Basic English Grammar Exercises by Michael Swan


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