A note-book of European history, 1400-1920 - download pdf or read online

By Samuel Hugh McGrady

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Leo X excommunicated Louis XII (1511). (b) The existence in every country of Legates and Nuncios, who maintained the claims of the Church. , had become simple jobbery. These evils were aggravated by Pluralism. e. the exemption enjoyed by them from the authority of secular tribunals. (e) Exemption from taxation of Ecclesiastical Property, though one-third of the wealth of Europe was in the hands of the Church. (2) INCREASING SECULARIZATION OF THE CHURCH (a) The Lives of the Popes, in theory the representatives of God on earth, but in reality secular princes.

Hence there was no central power to maintain order, and(a) Germany (the" milch-cow of the Papacy") was exposed to the rapacity of Rome. (b) The Reformation could take place without the consentof Charles V. ) X THE REFORMATION IN GERMANY (1) MARTIN LUTHER (1483-1546) Luther was educated at Erfurt University. He entered a monastery and studied St. Augustine (justification by faith, not through" good works "), and became professor at Wittenberg University (1508), established by Frederick the Wise of Saxony.

G, Poland, Hungary, Bohemia; also Brazil, Florida, Mexico and Peru, Canada, Mississippi Valley. Francis Xavier (1506- 1552), one of the original seven disciples, went to Hindustan, the Moluccas, and Japan. (3) THE INQUISITION First established by Pope Gregory IX (1229). It was especially active in Spain (where Torquemada was Grand Inquisitor, 1483-1498), Italy, and the Netherlands, and was introduced into Rome by Cardinal Caraffa (afterwards Paul IV) in 1542. It is estimated that between 1500-1808, 30,000 victims were burnt alive.

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A note-book of European history, 1400-1920 by Samuel Hugh McGrady


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