By Philip Arestis, Malcolm Sawyer (eds.)
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Extra resources for Alternative Perspectives on Economic Policies in the European Union
European Commission gives it until 2005 to comply. Germany confirms it will also break pact for third year. November 2003: Germany tries to draw the SGP’s remaining teeth by calling for countries that ‘co-operate’ to be exempted from possible sanctions. November 2003: ECOFIN Council suspends disciplinary procedures against France and Germany. European Commission shows grave concern. January 2004: European Council pledges to take ECOFIN to the European Court of Justice for allowing France and Germany to flout the SGP rules.
Explicit forms of credit control implemented by the central bank, or other government agencies, could be used to supplement interest rate policy. There are wellknown difficulties with the use of credit controls. They can be evaded (legally or otherwise) through switching from regulated to unregulated forms of credit including the development of products which fall outside the range of regulation and the switch of lending to overseas sources. Credit controls may have some effect in restraining credit and thereby expenditure, but the relaxation of credit controls may do little to stimulate expenditure during a downswing.
10. 11. 12. 13. Alternative Perspectives on Economic Policies in the European Union ruthless pursuit of price stability harms economic growth and well-being. Research even questions whether targeting price stability reduces the tradeoff between inflation and unemployment’ (Stiglitz, 2003). See Forder (2000) for an extensive discussion and critique of the notion of credibility. The March 2003 issue of the ECB’s Monthly Bulletin puts it as follows: ‘the outlook for the euro area economy could be significantly improved if governments strengthen their efforts to implement structural reforms in labour and product markets.
Alternative Perspectives on Economic Policies in the European Union by Philip Arestis, Malcolm Sawyer (eds.)