By Andrew Liddle
A concise, obtainable advent to this fascinating and dynamic subject.* Adopts an process grounded in physics instead of mathematics.* comprises labored examples and scholar difficulties, in addition to tricks for fixing them and the numerical answers.* Many reviewers have commented that this can be the best 'introductory undergraduate point' texts at the topic and they might all welcome a moment version.
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Extra info for An Introduction To Modern Cosmology, Second Edition
22) Notice that the density in matter falls off more slowly than that in radiation. So the situation of radiation dominating cannot last forever; however small the matter component might be originally it will eventually come to dominate. We can say that domination of the Universe by radiation is an unstable situation. In the opposite situation, where it is the matter which is dominant, we obtain the solution a(t) oc t 2/3 ; pmat oc - ; prad oc — oc — . 23) Matter domination is a stable situation, the matter becoming increasingly dominant over the radiation as time goes by.
Once matter comes to dominate the expansion rate speeds up, so the densities fall more quickly with time. 2 shows the evolution of a Universe containing matter and radiation, with the radiation initially dominating. Eventually the matter comes to dominate, and as it does so the expansion rate speeds up from a(t) oc t1/2 to the a(t) oc t 2/3 law. It is very possible that this is the situation which applies in our present Universe, as we'll see in Chapter 11. 4 Particle number densities An important alternative view of the evolution of particles, which will be much used later in the book, is that of the number density n of particles rather than of their mass or energy density.
First of all, remember that our entire foundation is the cosmological principle, telling us that no point in the Universe is special. If there were a particular point where the 'Bang' happened, that would clearly be a special point and violate the cosmological principle. Rather, space and time themselves were created at the instant of the Big Bang (unlike a conventional explosion where the material flies through pre-existing space). If we take any point in the present Universe and trace back its history, it would start out at the explosion point, and in that sense the Big Bang happened everywhere in space.
An Introduction To Modern Cosmology, Second Edition by Andrew Liddle